Basic Information
Site Name Bartholomäberg
Public Yes
Entity Name Friaga Wald
Entity Type settlement
Settlement Fortification
  • naturally fortified
  • Topography
  • man-made terrace
  • Entity Alternative Name
  • auf der Platta
  • Comment An important result of the excavations on a fortified prehistoric settlement site was the discovery of a fortified Bronze Age castle settlement from the 16th / 15th century BC. The castle settlement was protected by a wall (length 80 m, width 3 m) against the slope and the "hinterland" of the Platta. It is one of the oldest known castles of the Bronze Age in the Alps. The prehistoric hilltop village of Bartholomäberg is located in the Friaga forest (940 m above sea level) on the southeastern edge of the Platta, a large, south-facing terraced terrace, on which the scattered settlement of Bartholomäberg (church at 1087 m altitude) is located. The settlement hill is located about 240 m above the valley floor above Schruns, above the confluence of the Litz from the Silbertal and the lll from the rear Montafon. This strategically and topographically exposed point affords wide insights into the surrounding valleys and in the south to the Silvretta massif to the main Alpine ridge. The Platta is a natural hillside or mountain terrace on the Bartholomäberg, where in prehistoric times economic and field areas and other unpaved farmsteads may have lain. Another important aspect is that, as in historical times, prehistoric times are unlikely to be on the valley floor, but rather along the flood-free areas along the slopes. Furthermore, the altitude and the orientation of the terrace to the south favor agriculture (until the post-war period, for example, cereals were still grown). The topography of the settlement site and the relief of the terrain make it clear that the settlement was laid out on a terrain spur at the edge of the Platta's natural terraced terrace and the spur against the hinterland was secured by a moat carved out of the rock. The settlement site has steeply sloping flanks towards the valley side and reminds at first in the topography and internal outline of a small medieval castle site. Clearly artificial terracing can be seen for settlement plateaus. The settlement has an upper plateau 1, which is separated in the west by a small, carved into the rock ditch of the subsequent terrace of the Platta. Below are two plateaus or settlement terraces, of which the upper plateau 2 has a clearly visible in the terrain edge attachment or Terrassierungsmauer. The excavations carried out between 2000 and 2003 were aimed at clarifying the findings and settlement structures of the fortified hill colony. In the course of the investigations first questions of the settlement history of the place and the construction of its fortifications were tackled as well as inspections, Bohrstocksondierungen and smaller test excavations in different situations and areas on Bartholomäberg and in the rear Silbertal accomplished. The castle wall (original height 2-3 m) was a powerful structure, which served not only as a fortification, but also demonstrated the prestige and power of its inhabitants. Such a fortified place is understandable at this time only against the background of copper ore deposits and their exploitation; the castle settlement is to be understood as central place of this settlement region. Within the fortification, only six to eight block buildings had room for the inhabitants (about 30 to 40 people) on the settlement terrace artificially fortified by a terrace wall; The buildings were arranged in a kind of terraced housing estate along the terrace wall. Ceramic fragments, bronze needles, parts of house plans and hearths are testimonies of the Bronze Age settlers. Further unpaved farmsteads and farm groups you have to imagine in the "hinterland" - such as on the low-priced terrace locations on the Platta. The younger, after a break of about a thousand years over the Bronze Age horizon deposited cultural layer dates to the evidence of the finds in the early Iron Age. It contained ceramics of the late Hallstatt period (6th century BC) - so-called Taminser Ware - and ceramics and metal finds of the early La Tène period (5/4th century BC). Important are ceramic finds from the early La Tène period "Schneller Ware" from the Rhine Valley as well as from so-called Fritzener bowls from the Inn Valley. Thus, in the Iron Age cultural stratum in Bartholomäberg, elements of two important Inneralpine cultural areas of the Iron Age are tangible. On the Platta are in the center of the large mountain terrace in the area of ​​the Bodawegs several Terraced Terraces, which were systematically drilled in the summer of 2003 by students in the course of field prospecting with the one-meter drill. On a large terrace at a distance of 20 to 40 m at different distances black cultural layer remainders with charcoal were recovered and documented. On two charcoals C14 dates were performed, which coincided in the 14th and early 13th century BC. Fall into the younger Middle Bronze Age and the beginning of the Late Bronze Age. The topography of the site makes it clear that, in contrast to the fortified settlement in the Friaga Forest, it was an open, unpaved settlement. A permanent prehistoric settlement of the Montafon begins - impressively documented by the paleobotanical and archaeological investigations of K. Oeggl - after the middle of the 3rd millennium. On the basis of settlement and culture pointers, significant interventions of humans in the landscape can be detected. For the following millennia, these prove a settlement continuity in varying degrees of intensity through the prehistoric and historical periods through to modern times. The archaeological findings of the settlement in the Friaga Forest of Bartholomäberg allow the following reconstruction of the settlement history: A first settlement activity took place after evidence of eight 14C-dating in the late Early Bronze Age (18th / 17th century BC), as grading between the rocks were carried out to obtain flat surfaces or small podiums for the construction of residential buildings. This was followed at the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age (16th century BC), the expansion of the settlement site by the establishment of a semicircular terrace wall and a fortification wall against the slope. The Middle Bronze Age settlement may not have existed for more than 100 to 200 years and can be very well correlated with the findings in the mire profiles, ie with the settlements documented by the settlement pointers. Thereafter, a chronological leap can be seen in the archaeological sequence of layers, indicating a multi-century settlement interruption on the settlement hill. Chronologically, however, the two C14 datings of the drill stock footage in the Bodaweg on the Platta follow on from the Middle Bronze Age findings, suggesting that, after the abandonment of the settlement activity on the settlement hill, it would be a relocation and reestablishment of an open ground, unpaved settlement or homestead group came. Probably since the early Bronze Age - ie since the end of the 3rd Millennium BC. - The ascent and settlement of the Montafon with its convenient access from Walgau and its connections over pass heights to the south in other inner-alpine settlement areas with the prospection and mining of copper ores (possibly in the Iron Age also with that of iron ore) in connection.
    Dating
  • Austria | Austria | Bronze Age (unspecified)
  • Austria | Austria | Early Iron Age (unspecified)
  • Austria | Austria | Early Hallstatt culture/period (Ha C0)
  • Austria | Austria | Older Hallstatt culture/period (Ha C1)
  • Austria | Austria | Older Hallstatt culture (Ha C2)
  • Austria | Austria | Younger Hallstatt culture/period (Ha D1)
  • Austria | Austria | Younger Hallstatt culture/period (Ha D2)
  • Austria | Austria | Younger Hallstatt culture/period (Ha D3)
  • Certainty
    Entity Type Certainty 1 - high: data from more complementary methods and/or with relevant comparisons
    Dating Certainty 1 - high: data from more complementary methods and/or with relevant comparisons
    Location Certainty 1 - high: data from more complementary methods and/or with relevant comparisons
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