During the 2005 rescue excavation, a total of 41 cremation burials were detected in the road profiles of the construction site access road and those of the road as well as on a 600 m² exploratory surface. Most of the funerary buildings were man-long stone cisterns, some of them covered with stone slabs, on whose flat soles the funeral pyre was poured or scattered, the rest were urn burials. The extent of the burial ground is to be assumed on the basis of the available findings on an area of approximately 3,000 m². The graves were all richly equipped with bronze and ceramic gifts. The prosperity of the population is probably related to the mining of copper ore in the Schwaz area - with its prehistoric heyday in the period around 1200 BC.
Numerous were double equipment with costume decoration in women's graves: The deceased was burned in her costume at the stake; In addition to the fused outfit, another set was deposited in the grave - sometimes at a workshop - belt hooks, bracelets and needles. Men's graves were equipped with weapons (sword and lance tip), razor, needle and other. For the journey into the afterlife, the bowls and small jugs were filled with food and drink. Bronze buttons, which still show traces of a gold foil coating despite massive fire, suggest a hierarchization within the population. The find material is to date for the most part in the late 13th / 12th century BC, whereby the commencement of occupation of the necropolis could be due to a disc head needle in the early Bronze Age.
In 2006, the investigations continued on both sides of the construction site access, the known area of the necropolis now extended to a length of almost 130 m in northeast-south-west direction and a width of about 70 m in southeast-northwest direction. At the time of reporting in 2006, 96 stone cremation graves and urn graves were documented.
In the central area of the necropolis, the grave form of the so-called "man-long stone box" with a rectangular ground plan (average dimensions 2.3 x 1 m) dominated with a mostly box-shaped, on the basis of stone reconstructed wood installation, which was pronounced in one case roof-shaped. The stone boxes were usually covered with a cairn (length 3-4 m, width 2-4 m), which partially collapsed after the collapse of the wood installation. The upper edges of these stone packs lay up to 0.6 m above the gravel sole lined with stone slabs and Geschiebesteinen, while the lower edges of their base stones located at the edge of the stone boxes marked the late Bronze Age Gehhorizont. The different quality of execution of the grave monuments should correspond with the social status of the deceased. Sometimes the stone boxes were closed with large, horizontally laid plates at the top. The funeral pyre was deposited either as a bed (perhaps in an organic container) or as an areal spread. Already during the occupancy of the necropolis grave monuments were submerged by floods, which is why in the sequence the only partially visible cairns were marked by additional stone layers. The stone crate graves were oriented mainly north-northwest-south-southeast; Warrior graves are currently exclusively in this area. The "man-long" stone boxes are counted as an indication of a migrant population. Their mass appearance and the high-quality execution in the grave field Vomp / Fiechter Au are so far unprecedented in Tyrol.
Urn graves were found almost exclusively on the northern and northeastern periphery of the necropolis. The burial pits had sunk into the existing soil and were filled after the dumping of the urn partly with the fire debris of the stake. Occasionally, a flat capstone closed the grave pit upwards. Almost generally, grave goods were deposited in the urn, more rarely on the grave sole next to the urn. As in the center of the necropolis, the occupancy density in this area was also very high (32 graves on an area of 16x7 m).
The examination of the eastern border area of the necropolis, with a total area of approximately 1,450 m², was completely covered in 2007, with the exception of a 100 m² site. The 43 fire burials recovered in the year 2006 were supplemented by another 80 urn graves, 19 so-called man-long stone crate graves and five fire graves.
In the necropolis in 2008 a total of 13 urns and seven stone cremation graves were completely and numerous grave structures examined in the top planum, including the stone box grave 100 including burials (total area about 100 m²) and the monumental tombs 115 and 116, whose investigation by the onset of winter only in 2009 can be completed.
In 2010, the southwestern periphery of the necropolis was examined. Completed was the exploration of the nearly 100 square meter complex of grave 100. The burial mound was framed by a stone circle of mortar stones. It turned out that the large oblong attachment stone, which had once been vertically positioned in the oval burial mound, broke into the actual burial space after the wood had been inserted inside the stone box. The burial mound built on the walking horizon reached over the rectangular, 2.44 m long and 1.33 m wide stone box. This had been built from multi-layered paving stones and slaby rubble between the walls of the buried in the heavily silted flooded clay grave pit and the kistenformigen wood installation. Occasionally, the stones laid on the plank walls had retained their original position, so that the outside length of the wood installation (inside length Steinkiste) could be raised to 1.67 m and its outer width (inside width stone box) 0.76 m. The base stones of this so-called man-long stone box rested on the 2.42 m long and 1.25 m wide, with small paving stones multi-layer designed gravel. In this curling, an average of 1.12 m wide in the longitudinal axis was characterized centrally, in which the rolling horizon was slightly lower; he sat down, each with straight edges clearly from the both sides of higher scrolling sections. In flight of these rolling stages, two small posts could be detected at the base, which resulted in a nearly regular square with slight deviations from each other in the ground plan. These posts must have been installed due to their position in the long sides of the wood installation and be connected to each other at the narrow sides by horizontal, laid on the deeper curl crosspieces. Within this lowered rolling area decentralized in the right half of the corpse firing concentration, the sharp contour requires an organic Behaltnis, thereon a ball headed needle with strong ribbed neck, further from the Funeralfire merged and deformed bronzes (including a belt hook and small ornamental humpback) and immediately in addition to the concentration of corpse-fire, fragments of several earthenware vessels destroyed by the break-up of the timber or burial mound, including a handle pot and a funnel neck vessel. This entire complex was salvaged, including "en bloc" further additions can therefore be made only by the restoration. A knife with an asymmetrical blade cross-section and a second, smaller one on the fragments of an extremely fragmented shell - the knife had once been deposited in it - lay immediately to the east of the corpse fire. Needle and knife date grave 100 / 1A to the level Bz D, it currently pays to the oldest burials in the necropolis.
Soon after the erection of the grave construction, this was obviously flooded by floods of the nearby Inns: On the one hand covered on the grave pit sole multi-layered rolling in the deepest part partially rich, over this heavily sanded clay sediment, on the other hand remained set to the wood installation inner stone layers of consistently double-row long sides the stone box due to the stabilization by embedded fine sediment partly still preserved in its vertical position. To the tomb complex no. 100 also paid built from large paving stones, north-south oriented small stone box grave 100/8 with an outer length of 0.92 m and a Ausenbreite of 0.80 m. It was centrally covered with a longitudinal axis, 77 cm long, 25 cm wide and about 17 cm thick trapeziform plate from south of the Inn in the range of Schwaz pending phyllite. Above it rose the little rectangular burial mound, which extended little beyond the stone box and was erected on the former path, on which the large end plate of the stone box 100/4 had fallen. The stone box contained the funeral pyre of a young individual, carefully stored on a stone slab in a small rectangular wooden installation, which was salvaged en bloc.
For the necropolis Vomp-Fiechter Au, the individuality in the tomb is always to be emphasized, which is also underlined by the stone crate tomb 319. The approximately northwest-southeast oriented, built on the walking horizon oval burial mound (length 3.35 m, width 2.50 m) from large boulder stones comprised at a distance of 0.59 to 1.22 m a square (clear width northeast -Southwest 4.55 m, clear width northwest-southeast 4.60 m) from predominantly platy, laid on the Late Bronze Age walking horizon bed rubble and rubble. Its southeast and northeastern sides were to the whole, the southwest and northwest side hung because of the destruction by a trench from the year 1989 only partially preserved. The walking horizon was once shallow from northwest to southeast, more pronounced from northeast to southwest. To counteract the slippage of the southeastern stone-lay-curse, their stones had been moved with the longitudinal axes in the fall direction of the terrain; This was followed at right angles by the north-easterly stone-lay escape, which was preserved in the northeast-southwest-oriented northwestern plate flight. In the eastern and northern coasts, horizontal stone slabs were laid, which, due to the execution of the adjoining stone settlements, can only be interpreted as underlays for stanchions. Constructively, a corresponding stand position must have been located at the site of today's trench line, thus in the west corner formed by the northwestern and southeastern stone location.
A square stone slab in the southeastern stone-lay creeks at the level of the southwestern, northwest-southeast oriented course of the stone lay could also have served as a base for a stayer. Reconstruction would be an open (?) Ständer construction with a square floor plan, stabilized by horizontal, laid on the stone layers beam - thus a built over the grave mound "death house" (?). The so-called man-long stone box with a length of 2.61 m and a width of 1.28 m was deepened in the sand-containing clay sediment or under sanding sand. The corpse fire spread over a large area on the gravel sole, which was designed with small attachment stones, with a concentration in the southern half. On top of that were the deformed and merged pyroclastic offerings.
Stone cremation tombs 100/4, 322, 323 and 331 as well as urn graves 321, 327, 328 and 339 "en bloc" were examined; The excavation began with the excavation of burial mounds - burial mounds with underlying stone crates - from grave 60 (already located in 2006), 300, 326, 330, 332 to 334, 335 and 336, and the urn burial 338.
Insofar as an overall assessment of the densely populated necropolis is possible on the basis of the current state of research, the Bronze Age D component in the southwest area obviously intensifies on the one hand in the grave inventories and on the other hand between the individual grave complexes through strongly fragmented ceramics with area-wide punch-kerf cut. It probably comes from older graves whose markings were no longer recognizable due to sedimentation and were therefore destroyed in the installation of younger grave monuments by depleting the pits for stone boxes. The research results of the year 2010 support the assumption that the burial ground in the current track area of the Inntalautobahn continued.
On the one hand, the investigations were continued and focused on the one hand on the north-eastern fringes of the cremation grave field and on the other on the western periphery at the foot of the embankment (there in continuation of the investigations of 2010).
In the upcoming fine gravel or sand five urn burials (grave 128-130, 134, 135) and three stone boxes (grave 131-133) from. The urns had been placed in the grave pit without setting stones, smaller brooks - capstones or grave markings - had fallen into the interior of the Ossuaries. Fire debris from the pyre formed the pit filling of grave 134; as extras there were two clay pots, which were strongly pushed by the soil storage.
The three men-long stone boxes 131, 132 and 133 were not covered in contrast to those in the western edge zone of the necropolis with massive, beyond the grave pit far reaching grave mounds of mortar stones; a stone cover was present only at grave 132.
The bronze pyrites of Stone Crate Tomb 131, most of which were decorated with burnt patina - including four bangles, a disk belt hook, fragments of needles and a knife - had been partly buried in the corpse fire in the western half of the burial chamber, while in the eastern half the pottery ceramics - a heavily crushed handle pot as well as two shell and animal bones of meat addition.
Grave density is also very high in the western periphery of the necropolis. The assessment of the occupancy sequence favor various factors: For example, the partial overlay of an older grave mound through the stone layers of a younger or by grave robbery cleared stones, further the stratigraphy of the former walking horizons on which large grave mounds on the stone boxes, small and sometimes over the urn graves This assessment is made more difficult by the successive sedimentation by floods of the Inns. These landings sometimes seem to have been minor, and are particularly well to be taken there, where stones fallen from the burial mounds in the surrounding outdoor area at much higher levels than the base stones of the burial mounds themselves. This also underpins that built of mortar stones burial mounds not with Soil material have been poured.
Among other things, the grave pit 320 also provided the individual design of the funerary grave. Above the grave pit lined with small pebbles with a centrally placed, closed by a capstone ossuary of grave 320 - the stone lining also covered the decorated with a fingertip placket urn shoulder to the mouth seam - formed a gravel pile bordered with bricks and boulders and covered by the burial mound erected on the Late Bronze Age walking horizon.
Quite common was also the introduction of the urn in the grave pit without stone-setting with at best a capstone, which also served as grave marker. To what extent is reflected in the simplicity of these burials the social status of the deceased or a change in the grave construction, due to the block recoveries and therefore not yet known grave equipment outfits currently not to verify, as well as whether occasionally deposited in the grave pit deposited urn (z B. B. grave 341) is to be valued as a special burial.
The investigation area limited further research in 2012 on the western area of the necropolis. The investigations ended there several stone cists; Several stone boxes were started and completed, and several urn graves and funeral pyres were examined. Some of them had traces of robbery.
Found were u.a. approximately round burial mounds (No. 352, length 3.63 m, width 3.07 m) with stone box found. Here, the stones that had once been laid on the stone encased by the stone box were missing - they formed its cover and the top of the burial mound. Inside, there was a shell completely fragmented by collapse.
Above the gravelly sole, which was laid out with flat stones, the corpse conflagration spread homogeneously throughout the southern half - with the exception of the southeast corner - as well as in the northern half of the burial chamber, where it partially reaches the northern narrow side; the clay bowl stood on it. The fact that the corpse fire was not directly on the stones of the grave, but on an average of 0.02 m to 0.03 m thin clay sediment, had not penetrated into the stone joints and cut across them, indicates the laying presumably a board on which the calcined bones had been distributed over a wide area. In the southern half of the corpse firing was sharply contoured with some straight edges - on the one hand parallel to the inner edge of the southern narrow side, on the other hand parallel to the western and partially along the eastern long side of the stone box. As always, the inner dimensions of the stone box could only partially be developed: As a result of the intervention and the rotten wood installation sat and moved to the grave pit wall, the stone box forming bedrock and quarry stones, especially the vertically positioned platy rubble on the narrow sides. Thus, only approximate guide values for the dimensions of the burial chamber are given (inside width 0.39 m, inside length about 1 m), while the stone box itself had an outside length of 1.67 m and a maximum outside width of 1.30 m.
Clay fragments scattered at different heights from the eastern burial mound area into the southern half and into the center of the stone box, except for the funeral pyre deposited there. The position of the ceramic fragments suggests that the clay vessels destroyed on the occasion of the robbery were deposited at the eastern edge of the robbery hole and then partly thrown back into the robbery hole together with previously cleared stones of the burial mound or the stone box. Thus, for example, the footprint with wall approach of a bulbous vessel upside down inside the stone box, well above the corpse fire between the stones, and a wall shards with neck neck (probably from a handle pot) was almost horizontal on its outer side of the vessel in the eastern upper edge region of the robbery hole.
In the surrounding outer area of the burial mound, a layer of partly loose, partly dense and irregularly lying stones, whose interpretation as overburden of the hilltop or the capstones of the wood installation was obvious, was on the north or northwest side slightly above its base level. The deprivation must have taken place at a time when the base of the burial mound had already been sedimented with sand that had been silted up, but the time span of this sedimentation can not be determined at the moment. One indication could possibly be the urn grave (no. 353), which was recovered on the west side of the burial mound: The burial of this burial must have taken place at a time when the burial mound with a minimum height of 0.41 m is already at three quarters of its height after the robbery remaining remains of hills were barely visible. The burial pit (No. 353), which had been sunk into the heavily sanded clay sediment, did not show any signs of exposure - after depositing the urn and covering it with a flat bedding stone, possibly laid on a board, as grave mark, the pit was not filled with fire debris but with the excavated material Service. The urn-shoulder passed into the interior of the vessel, as a result of which the capstone sagged; The upper edge of the capstone located 0.10 m below the highest level of the burial mound can thus only indicate the walking horizon when creating the urn grave. The stones discarded to the northwest side of burial mound (no. 352) in the course of the deprivation of the stone box were already sedimented when creating the urn (No. 353) and no longer visible.
Even with the stone box grave 352 it can be assumed that the burial mound erected above it was not covered with soil material. A relevant hint offered by the grave hill unrolled stones, which in the surrounding outdoor area at the base or
- after sedimentation by floods of the nearby Inn
- were in a slightly higher position.
Northwest of burial mound 352 was in the heavily silted clay and the underlying fine gravel or sand, the approximately northwest-southeast oriented rectangular grave pit (average length 1.56 m, width 0.72 m) built for the larger paving stones and flat bricks Steinkiste 354 has been depressed. The stone box once encased a timber installation (length about 1.17 m, width about 0.41 m). A thin layer of clay sediment conveyed here, too, the lining of the grave-pit bottom, perhaps with a board; the corpse fire was then distributed in the southern half with sharp, straight contours, parallel on the one hand to the southern narrow side, on the other hand to the western and eastern long side, while he fanned out in the northern half. The sharp edges with a straight course prove, as in the case of grave 352, that the corpse firing was not introduced in an organic container, but flat and adjacent to the walls of the wooden chamber.
Before the northern narrow side of the stone box was a more or less intact handle pot. This partially covered a large flat stone slab, which was once probably laid on the wooden ceiling of the grave. The sedimentation of the chamber interior must be done before Vermorschung the chamber ceiling; The approx. 0.04 m thin sediment horizon between the edge of the mouth and the lower edge of the plate also indicated that, otherwise, when the wooden ceiling broke, the handle pot would have been pushed by the weight of the stone cover. Only on the northern narrow side and slightly protruding into the northern area of the stone box was the little beyond the grave construction extending beyond maximally two-ply Steinabdeckung tangible. Contrary to this, the findings were found in the southern half of the stone box: The top layer of the eastern long side was missing partially, the upright flat basalt stones had been strongly inclined in this area by the weight of laid over stone layers inside; in the burial chamber there was no destruction of the grave chamber cover, only two limestones rested in the middle of the funeral pyre on the grave sole. The sharp edges of the corpse fire parallel to the western or eastern long side reveal the dimensions of the burial chamber (clear width 0.32-0.38 m, clear length about 1 m). In the area of the western long side, the corpse fire edge showed a distance of 0.07 m to 0.09 m to the insides of the base stones of the stone box, which conveys the approximate strength of the timbers used for the burial chamber. From the findings it can be concluded that the deprivation - as in grave 352 - concentrated only on the southern area and the center of the stone box, while the northern area was apparently spared from the massive intervention due to the preserved ceramic. Taking into account the still extant sighting of the funeral fires of the burials 352 and 354, which have been recovered en bloc, it must be stated that there are no bronze items from both tombs. In unspoiled graves they were often deposited on the funeral pyre. At least in the stone box grave 352, a small fragment of a needle points to a pyre.
In July 2013, the remaining area of Gst. No. 3235/1 a 25 x 25 m large area was opened. An extension of this area in a westerly direction to the embankment foot of the freeway will take place in the coming year - in line with the landlord's wish to divide the approx. 4,100 m2 remaining area into two roughly equal plots. According to the results of the research on the properties adjacent to the north and east, a core zone of urn graves and loosely spaced stone crate graves, located in the southeastern periphery of the necropolis, continues. 14 urn graves and three stone cisterns were completely examined. Due to massive ground frost, four more stone boxes and six urn graves can only be completed in 2014.
In this section, called the east area, the stone boxes were not covered with burial mounds. For the graves investigated in the year under review, the low inclination into the upcoming gravel and the resulting construction in only a few stone layers was characteristic; sometimes they did not seem to have been built with much care. The question of whether it reflects, for example, the social status of the deceased or a change in the grave, the small recess may also be in a seasonal context, can not be answered at the moment. The stone box 395, built only from a stone layer, had gravel pending on gravel; Mortal firing was lacking both as concentration and as surface spreading. Thus, one may suspect here - as proven for the necropolis several times - a cenotaph and interpret the deposited on the grave sole fragment of a shell as a symbolic addition.
The urn graves were usually marked by a flat capstone, which lay directly on the mouth border of the corpse fire container (or perhaps on a board);
sometimes he had broken into the interior of the vessel. The urn was deposited in the burial pit, which was sunk into the gravel and often filled with fire debris from the stake, with or without a stone setting. The fire debris contained some funeral fires and occasionally small fragments of burnt bronzes or molten bronze and seems to have been searched before landfilling. Shallow urns were found to be susceptible to disturbance, presumably as a result of agricultural use, such as grave 394, which is severely damaged and scuffed just below the abdominal wall; from time to time modern material lay directly on Late Bronze Age material. In most cases were well preserved were urns deep into the upcoming gravel. Additions to deposited usually in the urn, so they elude preliminary knowledge - generally urns were recovered (as well as the ceramic offerings in stone cists) en bloc.
With the completion of the excavation campaign in 2013, a total of 417 graves were recorded since the beginning of the investigations in 2005; almost half of the cemetery area is examined.
In 2014, a total of 15 so-called man-long stone crate graves and 43 urn graves were examined.
The grave pits of the stone crates (grave 385, 389, 400, 403, 418-420, 456, 457, 460-464, 467) were all shallowly recessed into the upcoming gravel, so that the gravel bricks, once between wood installation and grave pit walls, mostly to two layers the grave sole out of a roll (for example grave 463) or platy attachment or break stones (for example grave 457) towered over. Inside, the cinder blocks and quarry slabs that once lay on the ceilings of the crate-shaped wooden structures usually rested just above the grabens, due to the location of the cremation and grave goods - these were mostly on a thin strip of sediment and not directly on the grave probably with a board - conceivable tree bark as well - was designed. Conspicuous were the consistently sparse grave goods.
Most of the burials studied in 2014 affected urn graves (393, 397, 398, 404A / B, 406, 411, 415, 421-455). The grave pits, which are embedded in the pebbly gravel, were usually in the best condition.
The ossuaries were mostly cylindrical neck urns, often with horizontal fingertip ribs (for example, tomb 442) or Riefendekor on the shoulder and four opposite, semicircular umrieften humps on the abdominal wall (for example, tomb 440); sometimes they stood on a slatted floor. A lining of the grave pit with the Ossuarium wedging debris was rarely found in 2014, as was the filling of the burial pits with fire debris from the stake (for example, 434, 448, 451, 452). Ceramics were found - as far as expected due to the block recovery of the urns - inside the urn, rarely on the grave sole next to the corpse fire container, sometimes at a much higher level (for example in grave 448). Often fitting fragments of thin-walled pottery found in the mine filling at different levels, which opens up their destruction at the open grave at the funeral ceremony.
The 2015 campaign concentrated on an average 29 m wide and 62 m long area. A total of 30 fires - 14 so-called man-long stone boxes and 16 urn graves - were investigated.
The man-long stone cists (Grave 24, 456, 468, 470, 471, 473-475, 478-481, 483, 484) almost invariably found themselves shallow in the somewhat silted loam. Their grave pit soles were always in the underlying, heavily interspersed with sand fine gravel. The long sides consisted of larger elongated and round, maximally two-layer laid paving stones, the upper edges of which were likely to have barely exceeded the walking horizon. The attachment stones were vertical, mostly resting on the narrow side, positioned in the longitudinal axis. During their installation, it seems to have been taken to ensure that a slightly rounded, flatter side into the interior and good at the wood installation. On the narrow sides one sometimes installed quarry stone slabs or split bricks. Only rarely did the inside of the stone crates in the stone lintel show an approximate strength of the planks used for the wood installation; at grave 481 the plank thickness of the western chamber wall could have been about 7 cm. As a rule, the breakage of the bedrock and rubble stones laid on the wooden ceiling did not rest directly on the gravel floor designed with a curling (for example grave 470, 475) or with stone slabs (for example Grave 473, 483), but on clay sediments, the deposits from floods of the nearby Inn. None of the stone boxes, in contrast to those in the southwest and west areas of the necropolis, were covered by a burial mound of mortar stones. The upper edges of the stone boxes were in the transitional horizon between humus-clay mixed material and pending clay horizon.
The urn graves concentrated mainly on two areas: northeast of the stone box 473 (488-491, 493-495) and southwest of the stone boxes 475 and 483 (476, 477, 486, 487). Some were already heavily disturbed and only partially preserved due to their low depression probably due to previous agricultural activity or possibly due to the ground lift on the occasion of highway construction. Stone settings around the ossuaries were not available; The burial pits were sometimes partially filled with fire debris from the stake. Above or on the urns positioned large capstones with the function as a grave marker had either fallen into the urn interior (493) or had due to their weight the corpse firing container - usually a Cylinder-necked urn with horizontal fingertip or with ridge decor (grave 488) - pushed (grave 490). All the ossuaries were recovered en bloc.